ELTE BTK Magyar Nyelvtudományi és Finnugor Intézet

Salánki, Zsuzsa (Budapest)

nyomtatható változat


A grammatical variable with respect to Finno-Ugric–Russian bilingual language use. The Udmurt Case


This presentation deals with present-day changes of Udmurt language with a view to a grammatical variation. The discussed language variable is the variable of verbs with variants of Udmurt words and Russian loan words. There are also different borrowing patterns of verbs in modern Udmurt, and in other Finno-Ugric languages of Russia too.

There is a lack of research introducing the speakers’ choice in relation to language variables, especially to variable of verbs. The variables showing the contact effects of Russian usually are treated by the Udmurt linguistic literature as the question of correct usage, in a prescriptive way. However, in the case of Russian inflected variants of some variables the spontaneous linguistic form strongly deviates from the literary norm taught at school and used in the media.

My results show, that with regard to sociological variables and in relation to different groups of speakers the Udmurt case seems to be in accordance with the the loan verb integration hierarchy, suggested by Wichmann – Wohlgemuth (2005), that is the different borrowing patterns are correlate with the degree of bilingualism.

Finally, it could be assume, that the use of the Udmurt language could be extended, if the non-standard linguistic variables were not connected with institutionally negative value judgement.

The data collection was carried out mainly by means of questionnaire in 2004-2005, from 192 Udmurt speakers.


Kiss Jenő 1972. A jövevényigék meghonosítása a finnugor nyelvekben. In: Nyelvtudományi Közlemények LXXI. Budapest. 299-324.

Wichmann, Søren – Wohlgemuth, Jan 2005. Loan verbs in a typological perspective. In: http://loanverb.linguist.de/Wichmann_Wohlgemuth_verb-borrowing-typology.pdf


In English