ELTE BTK Magyar Nyelvtudományi és Finnugor Intézet

Kondratjeva, Natalja (Izhevsk)

nyomtatható változat

Local cases with lative meaning in Udmurt

1. The system of declension of the Udmurt language consists of 15 cases which are represented by subject-object and local cases. Within the literary variant of Udmurt the local cases include the inessive, illative, elative, egressive, prolative, terminative and approximative cases.
Considering the types of orientation in space, local cases of Udmurt may have the following meanings: a) essive used to express absence of motion regarding the point of orientation; b) lative used to actualize motion of an object towards the space connected with the point of orientation; c) elative used to mark motion of an object out of the space connected with the point of orientation; d) prolative used to express motion of an object through the space connected with the point of orientation.
The paper aims at describing the morphological and semantic structure of local cases with lative meaning.
2. The lative meanings are expressed in Udmurt by means of the illative, terminative and approximative cases. According to the semantic structure, the primary meaning of these cases is to express location and time features: гуртэ (Ill) бертыны ‘return home/to the village’, гуртозь (Term) пыдын бертыны ‘go on foot until reaching the village’, гуртлань (Appr.) кошкыны ‘go in the direction of the village’; вордüськонэ (Ill) бертыны ‘to return on Monday’, вордüськонозь (Term) лэсьтыны ‘to do before/by Monday’, куазь сüзьыллань (Appr.) кариське ‘the weather is moving towards autumn’.
Considering the semantic characteristics and deictic elements of utterances, all the three forms may actualize both the meaning of approaching (motion in a certain direction towards something) and moving away from the deictic center. At the same time each case is characterized with a number of specific features:
2.1. The illative forms tend to express both inclusive (motion towards certain space and entrance into it) and exclusive meanings (motion towards certain space without entrance into it). The terminative and approximative forms express exclusive meanings.
2.2. Besides expressing location and time features, the terminative case is used to express quantitative meanings: a) to give information concerning the length, height, size and age: Соосты толэзёзь будэтüд ке, выль кузёзылы уз дыше ни. ‘If you keep them (puppies) until they are a month, they won’t get used to their new owners’; b) to convey the degree at which the action is expressed: Мылкыд туж урод: депрессиозь одüг вамыш ‘I am in terrible mood: just a step from depression’.
2.3. The basic meaning of the approximative case is to express direction of movement in terms of space and time.
2.4. In order to express absolute localization, the structure of a sentence may include two or more lexemes having illative markers. The localization is usually expressed by specific word order according to which words with more general meaning precede the words with more particular lexical meaning: Киеве госпитале ваизы монэ. ‘I was taken to Kiev, to hospital’. The use of more than one lexeme in the form of the illative case is also typical for the situations when different meanings of the illative case are actualized: Беков вукое мельнике медъяськиз ‘Bekov took a job of a miller at a mill’. There is no evidence of double use of terminative and approximative forms in works of literature.